Mattes, H. & W. Gatter
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Beeinflusst der Star Sturnus vulgaris über Höhlenkonkurrenz die Häufigkeit von Spechten Dendrocopos sp.?
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Höhle, Wald, Wiese, Brut, Nest
Sturnus vulgaris, Dendrocopos sp., Ficedula albicollis, Parus cristatus, Parus montanus, Sitta europaea, Passer montanus, Parus major, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Dendrocopos medius, Dendrocopus major, Dendrocopos syriacus, Picoides borealis, Sialia sialis, Melanerpes carolina, Melanerpes lewis, Sialia mexicana, Sialia currucoides, Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Melanerpes formicivorus
Star, Specht, Halsbandschnäpper, Haubenmeise, Mönchsmeise, Kleiber, Feldsperling, Kohlmeise, Gartenrotschwanz, Mittelspecht, Buntspecht, Blutspecht, Kokardenspecht, Rotkehl-Hüttensänger, Carolinaspecht, Blutgesichtsspecht, Bluebird, Rotkopfspecht, Eichelspecht
Deutschland, Esslingen, Stuttgart, Schwäbische Alp, Neckartal
Do Common Starlings Sturnus vulgaris influence the density of woodpeckers Dendrocopos sp. by competition for nest holes? The population of Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius in Central Europe has grown remarkably. The increase was twofold: Its density in preferred habitats increased and it more frequently occupied open habitat types such as orchards, forest edges, and tree islands. Expansion started after the 1970s when numbers of Common Starlings Sturnus vulgaris and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus declined. The Great Spotted Woodpecker D. major also increased its breeding density. There is evidence that competition for nest holes is important for some woodpecker species. It was observed that the Great Spotted Woodpecker was expelled from its nest hole by Starlings (Löhrl 1956). Also newly built nest holes of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker have been found occupied by Starlings later in the season. Data from nesting success of several North-American woodpeckers also confirm the importance of nest losses caused by Common Starlings introduced from Europe (cf. Table 2).
The spreading of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker into forest types not used before as well as its increase in open woodland and orchards support the hypothesis that competition by Starlings and Tree Sparrows plays a role as limiting factors. These habitats used to be dominated by Starlings and Tree Sparrows, both of which have declined to a small proportion of their former populations. In some regions of South-eastern Europe and Turkey where the Starling is rare or absent the Middle Spotted Woodpecker also lives in open woodlands with scattered trees. Lower competition for tree holes due to a decline of Starlings seems to be a key factor explaining the increase of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker.
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